- Candidate - A combination of an IP address and port to be used for a media channel.
- ICE - Interactive Connectivity Establishment, a technique (and RFC 2545) to combine client-side techniques with server support to find the most appropriate way of sending media to another end-point; uses STUN and TURN. The Skype for business A/V edge server is a STUN/TURN server.
- STUN - Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT or Session Traversal Utilities for NAT
- TURN - Traversal Using Relay NAT
- MRAS - Media Relay Authentication Service, is a service on the Edge Server that is responsible for providing credentials to clients in order for them to be able to request ports and establish media sessions through the Edge Server. Without credentials, clients can not include Edge Server candidates in their candidate list when trying to establish a media session.
- SDP - Session Description Protocol (aka Self-Description Protocol)
- RTP - Real-time Transport Protocol - sending the media
- RTCP - Real-time Control Protocol - controlling the media during transfer and used for reporting.
- NAT - Network address translation - a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in Internet Protocol (IP) datagram packet headers while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
The solution: ICE, STUN, TURN
1. Sign-in - MRAS Request
1. Sign-in - MRAS Request
When a client sign-in it requests a token from MRAS, this is done once at sign-in and after 8 hours by default. This is how the client learns that an edge server exists and how it can be used, e.g. which addresses to use. The MRAS request and response can be seen in the SIP traces.
3. Candidate Exchange - the caller sends a list of candidates (SIP package) to the callee, and the callee initiates a candidate discovery and send back a list of candidates.
4. Connectivity Checks - a run thorough of "all" candidates trying to connect to the other sides list of candidates to find the optimal media path. (These Connectivity checks using STUN packets are not seen in a SIP trace but visible using Wireshark.)
5. Candidate Promotion - When checks are done the optimal media path and/or optimal candidate media pairs are selected. The final candidate promotion can take up to 10 seconds to happen, so if you are tracing on a test call and want to make sure you get the complete picture, make sure your test call lasts at least 10 seconds. A second invite (re-invite) and OK with only the final candidates will come eventually.
host - local IP of a client computer
srflx - server reflexive
relay - external IP and port on the A/V edge
Candidates traditionally comes in pairs where one candidate is used for RTP and the other for RTCP. If both clients can use multiplexing for RTCP (a=rtcp-mux in SDP (newer clients can do this)) only one candidate can be used for both RTP and RTCP.
High ports in the external firewall
This has been in the documentation for a long time, and it has confused a lot of people.
If two edge servers will talk to each other we will not use the high ports as destination ports. For UDP the traffic will flow from port 3478 to port 3478, and multiple sessions can be handled. TCP is not stateless so it can have only one connection from one ip-address:one port to another ip-addres:another port. So the edge will use different source ports, but the destination port will always be 443.If your firewall is only filtering on the destination port - then forget about the 50,000 - 59,000 port range, but if your firewall requires you to configure source ports, use the "source port" column below.
And the final scenario is when using an edge pool with DNS load balancing. In this scenario, an external user connected to one edge server tries to set up media to an internal user connected to another edge server. In this case the external firewall must allow public to public IP hair pinning or the call will fail (or the 50,000 - 59,999 port range could be opened to avoid this.)
Changes to ports for Skype for business Online
Microsoft Lync Server 2010 Resource Kit (Chapter 9)